Ecology and food economy

Cycle of manufactured goods

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From farm to fork

When talking about the life cycle of a product, we have to take into account all activities at each stage of the product's life. The life cycle begins with production, from the moment the raw materials are extracted or harvested, and ends with disposal or recycling as waste. Between these two points, a product goes through processing and assembly, packaging, transportation and, of course, consumption. We can follow a product’s life cycle from start to finish.


In analysing each step, we can understand what manufacturing actually costs and its impacts on the environment, for example, through the use of non-renewable energy, or water, or through the emission of greenhouse gases or pollutants. The aim is therefore to identify sources of pollution and waste, to find alternatives that are more environmentally friendly.

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